music performances appeared within this
period. In 1897, Abdurrahim Akhverdiyev,
famous writer (that time student of St.
Petersburg University) guided performance
of musical scene called “Mejnun at Leyli’s
Tomb”. It was performance in costumes for
the text of the final part of “Leyli and
Mejnun” poem (great Azerbaijani poet Fizuli).
Famous singers Jabbar Garyagdi and Akhmed
Agdamsky played roles in this performance.
Instrumental trio, headed by Mirza Sadig
Asadoglu, accompanied their singing.
music performance was met with delight.
It was a notable event in music life of
not only Azerbaijan, but also for the whole
Trans Caucasus. It became bless ground to
create music theater in Azerbaijan. Uzeir
Hajibeyov, basing on this performance (seen
in his childhood in 1908), created the first
Azerbaijani mugam opera “Leyli and Mejnun”
(poem of great Azerbaijani poet Fizuli -
1908). Opera “Leyli and Mejnun” was the
first opera in the East.
performance of above music scene, A. Akhverdiyev
arranged “Eastern Concerts”. First concert
was arranged in Shusha (1901), and then
in Baku (1902). Outstanding representatives
of Garabagh school: Jabbar Garyagdioglu,
Kechachi oglu Mahammad, Meshadi Farzaliyev
and others successfully participated in
these concerts. Tar-player Gurban Pirimov
and Kemancha-player Sasha Oganezashvili
accompanied them. They performed mugam and
tesniffs at these concerts. Famous Garabagh
ashigs were invited for performance. “Eastern
Concerts” played important role in mugam
entering into concert stage. They assisted
in upbringing of high aesthetic taste of
life rapidly developed in Baku in early
20th century. This city became the first
one among Azerbaijani cultural centers.
Outstanding cultural figures, including
some Garabagh musicians started coming here.
The continued their activity in Baku. However
they always were connected spiritually with
Garabagh and Shusha, their native land.
They continued transmitting their knowledge
to young musicians. New generation of mugam
performers grew and formed in Garabagh.
music schools, special and higher music
institutions have been opened in Baku in
the middle of the 20th century. This time
mugam singers increased their teaching activity.
They continued upbringing of professional
musicians firstly in Eastern Conservatoire,
then at Baku Musical College, and later
in Baku Music Academy. At the moment they
teach classic mugam art in the National
Conservatoire and University of Culture
other area of folk professional singers
was a theater and concert hall. Many of
them being soloists of the Opera and Ballet
Theater, participate in mugam operas of
Azerbaijani composers and for wide audience
of TV and radio. Parallel with this mugam
singers often perform on tours. Concerts
of folk professional performers, including
Garabagh ones were successfully performed
in big cities of Europe, Russia, and Middle
about development of mugam art, we should
note gramophone records of folk musicians.
These records, preserving voices of great
masters are the national property of Azerbaijani
people. They played significant role in
propaganda of Azerbaijani music and its
recognition in the world.
1906 – 1905, big sound-recording companies
of different countries (such as “Gramophone”,
“Pate”, “Sport-record”, “Extraphone”, and
Nogin factory) invited famous Azerbaijani
singers and recorded them. Jabbar Garyagdi
was the first of them. Then they recorded
voices of Kechachi oglu Mahammad, Meshadi
Mammad Farzaliyev, Islam Abdullayev and
others. Gurban Pirimov (tar) and Sasha Oganezashvili
(kemancha) accompanied them. Gramophone
records preserved us their solo instrumental
performance of mugams.
time recording process itself was very difficult.
That is why performers were required to
be high professionals. All musicians showed
extraordinary skills to transfer beauty
and prosperity of Azerbaijani music. Next
years issue of gramophone records increased
significantly. Above companies issued the
catalogues with data and pictures of Azerbaijani
singers and instrumentalists.
tradition proceeds till nowadays. Performances
of mugam singers and players are recorded
with modern hardware on CD, audio and videos.
They open Internet-sites. All this widens
the audience of mugam listeners. Number
of Azerbaijani mugam admirers increase worldwide.
And representatives of Garabagh School take
a great role in this process.
of mugams and folk music opened ways for
scientific researches. Activity of Scientific
Research Cabinet in the Azerbaijan State
Conservatoire, headed by Bulbul is remarkable.
Here they recorded mugams, tesniffs, folk
songs and dances, ashig creative works and
others, performed by famous singers and
players. Then they interpreted recorded
material, and issued it as collections.
They invited many masters for recording.
For instance, we could note Jabbar Garyagdi.
They recorded over 200 songs and tesniffs
in his performance.
of the cabinet participated in research
expeditions, aimed to collect folk music.
Expedition to Garabagh was especially productive.
They could record very important music material.
We should note that essential part of collected
materials is preserved in the archive of
mugam that is expression of folk ideology,
folk attitude, was perfected in the creative
works of professional performers, improving
in performance schools. So it came across
nowadays. Mugam as a genre of Azerbaijani
professional music of oral tradition is
the ground of national music culture. It
lives, develops, walks around the world
greatest stages, and is carefully transmitted
to growing generation.